A design pattern for a Smarter City: the City Information Partnership
February 19, 2013 4 Comments
(In “Do we need a Pattern Language for Smarter Cities” I suggested that “design patterns“, a tool for capturing re-usable experience invented by the town-planner Christopher Alexander, might offer a useful way to organise our knowledge of successful approaches to “Smarter Cities”. I’m now writing a set of design patterns to describe ideas that I’ve seen work more than once. The collection is described and indexed in “Design Patterns for Smarter Cities” which can be found from the link in the navigation bar of this blog).
Design Pattern: City Information Partnership
Summary of the pattern: A collaboration between city institutions, communities, service providers and research institutions to share and exploit city data in a socially and financially sustainable system.
City systems, communities and infrastructures affected:
(This description is based on the elements of Smarter City ecosystems presented in “The new Architecture of Smart Cities“).
- Goals: Any.
- People: Citizens; innovators.
- Ecosystem: All.
- Soft infrastructures: Innovation forums; networks and community organisations.
- City systems: Any.
- Hard infrastructures: Information and communications technology.
Commercial operating model:
City information partnerships are often incorporated as “Special Purpose Vehicles” (SPVs) jointly owned by city institutions such as local authorities; universities; other public sector organisations such as schools, healthcare providers and emergency services; services providers such as transportation authorities and utilities; asset owners and operators such as property developers and facility managers; local employers; and private sector providers such as technology companies.
A shared initial investment in technology infrastructure is often required; and in order to address legal issues such as intellectual property rights and liability agreements.
Long-term financial sustainability is dependent on the generation of commercial revenues by licensing the use of data by commercial operations. In cases where such initiatives have been supported only by public sector or research funding, that funding has eventually been reduced or terminated leading to the stagnation or cessation of the initiative.
Soft infrastructures, hard infrastructures and assets required:
Information partnerships only succeed where they are a component of a co-creative dialogue between individuals and organisations in city institutions such as entrepreneurs, community associations, local authorities and social enterprises.
Institutional support is required to provide the models of legal liability and intellectual property ownership that create a trusted and transparent context for collaborative innovation.
Technologies such as Cloud Computing platforms; information management; security; analytics, reporting; visualisation; and data catalogues are required to manage city information and make it available and useful to end users.
Information partnerships require the participation of organisations which between them own and are prepared to make available a sufficiently broad and rich collection of datasets.
Information is transforming the world’s economy; it provides new insight to support business model creation and operation; makes new products and services possible; and creates new markets.
At the same time global and local demographic trends mean that the cost-base and resource usage of city systems must change.
Information partnerships expose city information to public, private, social and academic research and innovation to discover, create and operate new models for city services; with the potential for resale elsewhere; leading in turn to economic and social growth.
Community hacktivism can usually be engaged by information partnerships to create useful community “apps” such as local transport information and accessibility advice.
The creation of new information-based businesses creates local employment opportunities, and economic export potential.
Information partnerships can provide information resources for technology education in schools, colleges and universities.
New city services developed as a result of the information partnership may provide lower-carbon alternatives to existing city systems such as transportation.
Implications and risks:
If participating organisations such as local authorities include the requirement to contribute data to the information partnership in procurement criteria, then tendering organisations will include any associated costs in their proposals.
For information partnerships to be sustainable, the operating entity needs to be able to accrue and reinvest profits from licenses to exploit data commercially.
The financial returns and economic growth created by information partnerships can take time to develop.
Genuinely constructive partnerships rely on effective engagement between city institutions, businesses and communities.
Existing contracts between local authorities and service providers are unlikely to require that data is contributed to the partnership; and the costs associated with making the data associated with those services available will need to be negotiated.
Alternatives and variations:
Some organisations have provided single-party open data platforms. These can be effective – for example, the APIs offered by e-Bay and Amazon; but individual organisations within cities will rarely have a critical mass of valuable data; or the resources required to operate effective and sustained programmes of engagement with the local community.
Many advocates of open data argue that such data should be freely available. However, the majority of platforms that have made data available freely have struggled to make data available in a form that is usable; to expand the data available; to offer data at a reliable level of service; or to sustain their operations over time. Making good quality data available reliably requires effort, and that effort needs to be paid for.
Examples and stories:
- Dublin – http://www.dublinked.ie/
- San Franciso – http://radar.oreilly.com/2013/01/san-francisco-open-data-appallicious.html
- Chicago – https://data.cityofchicago.org/
Sources of information:
The UK Open Data Institute is championing open data in the UK – http://www.theodi.org/
O’Reilly Media have published many informative articles on their “Radar” website – http://search.oreilly.com/?q=open+data&x=0&y=0&tmpl=radar
The report “Information Marketplaces: The new economics of cities” published by Arup, The Climate Group, Accenture and Horizon, University of Nottingham – http://www.arup.com/Publications/Information_Marketplaces_the_new_economics_of_cities.aspx
Finally, I have written a series of articles on this blog that explore the benefits and challenges associated with the collaborative exploitation of city information: